The Sierra de Santa Rosa de Lima, Guanajuato, is part of what is known as the central highlands, which is a geological system that traverses half the State, with heights ranging from 2500 meters to 2900 meters above sea level: is the wettest and also of the most biodiverse region of the State of Guanajuato.
La Sierra de Santa Rosa is our most important ecosystem to the municipality and of the most important in terms of biodiversity of all the State.
Santa Rosa is a temperate forest composed mostly of oaks (Quercus SP.) with over 12 species at least; two species of strawberries, many members of the family of Ericaceae, and also red-trunked trees of great ecological importance, relative of the pinguicas that grow throughout northern and central Mexico.
The most important river of this sierra is the river that runs through Santa Rosa. A tributary of the Laja river, it is born of the micro-watershed in our community. It is an aquatic system that has highly preserved Ripcaricos systems, that is to say, systems similar to those that where present before human occupation. Counting among its most important tree species are alder(alanus joruyensis), ash (frexinus sp), willow (salix bomplandiana), oaks, and some others in smaller quantities.
There are also several other bodies of water important to ecosystem such as the Peralillo dam and the dam of the Derramadero, besides watersheds that are born within the surface and terrain of the Sierra de Santa Rosa.
Santa Rosa is many things, among them, is one of the largest pure oak forests in the country, usually this ecosystem of temperate forest is composed of pine-oak. It is the coldest and most damp ecosystem throughout the state, although, it is not the highest since the Zamorano outperforms the Sierra de Santa Rosa in height.
It is important to pay attention to what the forest tells us to understand how to protect it and prevent its disappearance. Remember, ecological systems like ours depend on the recharging of aquifers from which water for cities is extracted and without this recharging the forest decreases substantially, as well as any erosion associated with the disappearance of the vegetation cover of these ecosystems. Erosion is the largest danger threatening what remains of our forests and our territory. We have now lost more than half of the original forests of this area and Santa Rosa is our great treasure.
Santa Rosa is also a great center of biodiversity of fungi, so during the seasons you can see wide variety of fungi (carpforos or fruiting bodies). The fungi are producers of soil and of cellulose and degrading lignin and in general of all organic matter. Some serve as food, such as the Ceasar’s mushroom (Amanita Caesarea).
The Sierra also boasts mosses and lichens. Lichens are a mutualistic association between algae and fungi, where usually the algae which are plants producing sugars through photosynthesis exchanged for minerals produced by the fungi. Mosses are also spectacular, often forming microscopic ecosystems that are producers of soil. These plant organisms serve as a good indicator of the health of an ecosystem.
The fauna of the sierra de Santa Rosa have many things to tell us. There are carnivorous animals such as coyote (lupus I), gato montes (Inca rufus), puma (felix concolor), fox (conepatus lapuritu), cacomiztle (bassaris astuta) among other species.
Also we have rodents such as several species of squirrel, gopher and others. We have marsupials such as the opossum (didelfis V) and ruminant such as the white-tailed deer.
The variety of birds is also very extensive with more than 200 species of birds both local foreign cone there are birds of prey, zigodactilas, gallinaceous, waders and many more.
We have various reptiles such as turtles, lizards, and many snakes like rattlesnake, several representatives of castanets, chirrioneras, fake coral and deadly coralillo, alicante and others.
We have to understand our role as humans within forests. Perhaps our main task is to take care of them as if we were their gardeners and we devoted to understanding them and caring for them, thus perhaps repay a little of all that forests have given us.